Arquivos da Categoria: Operation Mutum Book

OERATION MUTUM – THE SUFFOCATION

Esta imagem possuí um atributo alt vazio; O nome do arquivo é image.png

(episode 6)

In 1966 Paulo de Sa was arrested in Ipatinga and, as a result of his arrest and incarceration, there was a great uproar in Mutum. His brother Professor Carlos traveled for days without anyone knowing inform the destination of your trip.

The family, his wife and two children, pretended that nothing was happening, but try as they might continue their daily routines, let transpire sometimes clear signs of much concern and insecurity.

Upon returning, days after traveling, we learned by Carlos that his brother Paul, who had been taken prisoner at the union’s headquarters in Ipatinga, in the Steel Valley, was missing, but is not on the official records of trade unionists held for investigation.

He, Carlos, had tried with the influential known locate his brother, without any success. He feared for his life . “I do not want to imagine – said – what poor old Paul must be going.” Asked about the risks that he was running, and there was also a danger for those who were enticed in Mutum, he said to be quiet because there was nothing that could lead to acts of subversion. He advised, however, that all they possessed at home the famous Statute of Brazil’s Communist Party got rid of it. They should not hide or throw away. They should burn it and throw the ashes away. Other books considered subversive should also have the same purpose. Finally, alerted to the fact that The less we discuss or safer policy would be.

The routine Of the people of Mutum has undergone some changes. They no longer saw groups of older residents formed the sidewalks, late at night, even when the heat became almost unbearable inside the residences.

Also in Central Plaza banks where the new communist sat to discuss the future of Brazil, they had almost always empty, and also showed the Billiard game  empty hall during the week.

Only on weekends, in the evenings of Saturday and Sunday, traffic increased on the sidewalks, in the Central Square and the Billiard game tables. Also the Social Club Mutum and Tringolingo became frequented only on weekends.

It could be seen in the air a hint of fear, suspicion and mistrust. When someone was not seen for more than two days, then it was rumored that the person had been arrested or had disappeared or had fled the city.

In fact, there were few arrests that took place in Mutum because of the revolution in those early days. But they happened. As was the case for example of Manoel Caxias, owner of House of Parties, specializes in selling fireworks and the like. His arrest happened during the day, with lots of people watching, all very scared, helpless, unable to help.

Manoel Caxias was gaucho, of Caxias do Sul, last name of the reason was known.

Until that day when he was taken into custody by military police, no one could even imagine that would be able to perform any crime, any ruse, do someone harm. Manoel Caxias always presented as an honest, fair and fraternal, fully reliable.

The explanation given later by the police who had participated in his arrest, the Cape Eleuterio, was that Manoel Caxias had been denounced as war material supplier to the government enemies. Better explaining the fireworks trader was accused of providing subversive explosive material used in the composition and making of homemade bombs. These bombs that were being used in bank robberies occurred in the region.

first taken to Juiz de Fora, he was transferred soon after to Belo Horizonte, where he was detained for thirty days, returning after a loose Mutum, where he continued merchant, but in another line of business, the haberdashery.

The House Parties closed its doors and ceased its activities. Manoel Caxias since then always avoided comment on his arrest.

Another the people of Mutum considered subversive, arrested and prosecuted, was the Marinho Paulista, gas station owner Mouth Road, one well known Bairrinho to be located where began the main road that served as access to the city.

Contrary to how Manoel Caxias was arrested during the day and in front of several people, Marinho Paulista was caught at his home overnight without the closest neighbors were unaware of something.

One morning the woman known for Nezinha Cota, who Marinho Paulista had an affair, went to the station and informed the attendants what had happened.

When inquired how everything happened, she simply said he did not know details of who was in his own house, nearby the Marinho Paulista, he saw come the cops. Who had called for him and trapped when the door opened. The led, according to her, handcuffed, in a jeep. There were four policemen. She could not identify any of them, which made understand that it was not anyone from Mutum policing.

The disappearance of Marinho Paulista according to the rumors that have spread through the city, would be related to the supply of fuel for vehicles used by subversives during robberies in nearby towns.

The bank robberies were becoming routine and there was not enough to know when they were committed by subversive groups or burglars. Some sought to assign the events to others.

Marinho Paulista not returned to more Mutum. Your gas station has been abandoned since it was not there any relative that his place of business. The grass was taking over everything taking place account.

Even today there are some who continue the people of Mutum stating that Marinho Paulista not only supplied subversives cars, but also earned commission in the assaults made by simple marginal and assigned to those. How did not return from prison, they began to circulate rumors that Marinho Paulista had not supported a torture session that had been submitted and that he had died, it was not known when or where.

also happened to other prisons important no less, but I will take the liberty to report for now, only these two cases and, of course, Paulo de Sá.

   THE VISIT

THE SUFFOCATION

In 1966 Paulo de Sa was arrested in Ipatinga and, as a result of his arrest and incarceration, there was a great uproar in Mutum. His brother Professor Carlos traveled for days without anyone knowing inform the destination of your trip.

The family, his wife and two children, pretended that nothing was happening, but try as they might continue their daily routines, let transpire sometimes clear signs of much concern and insecurity.

Upon returning, days after traveling, we learned by Carlos that his brother Paul, who had been taken prisoner at the union’s headquarters in Ipatinga, in the Steel Valley, was missing, but is not on the official records of trade unionists held for investigation.

He, Carlos, had tried with the influential known locate his brother, without any success. He feared for his life . “I do not want to imagine – said – what poor old Paul must be going.” Asked about the risks that he was running, and there was also a danger for those who were enticed in Mutum, he said to be quiet because there was nothing that could lead to acts of subversion. He advised, however, that all they possessed at home the famous Statute of Brazil’s Communist Party got rid of it. They should not hide or throw away. They should burn it and throw the ashes away. Other books considered subversive should also have the same purpose. Finally, alerted to the fact that The less we discuss or safer policy would be.

The routine Of the people of Mutum has undergone some changes. They no longer saw groups of older residents formed the sidewalks, late at night, even when the heat became almost unbearable inside the residences.

Also in Central Plaza banks where the new communist sat to discuss the future of Brazil, they had almost always empty, and also showed the Billiard game  empty hall during the week.

Only on weekends, in the evenings of Saturday and Sunday, traffic increased on the sidewalks, in the Central Square and the Billiard game tables. Also the Social Club Mutum and Tringolingo became frequented only on weekends.

It could be seen in the air a hint of fear, suspicion and mistrust. When someone was not seen for more than two days, then it was rumored that the person had been arrested or had disappeared or had fled the city.

In fact, there were few arrests that took place in Mutum because of the revolution in those early days. But they happened. As was the case for example of Manoel Caxias, owner of House of Parties, specializes in selling fireworks and the like. His arrest happened during the day, with lots of people watching, all very scared, helpless, unable to help.

Manoel Caxias was gaucho, of Caxias do Sul, last name of the reason was known.

Until that day when he was taken into custody by military police, no one could even imagine that would be able to perform any crime, any ruse, do someone harm. Manoel Caxias always presented as an honest, fair and fraternal, fully reliable.

The explanation given later by the police who had participated in his arrest, the Cape Eleuterio, was that Manoel Caxias had been denounced as war material supplier to the government enemies. Better explaining the fireworks trader was accused of providing subversive explosive material used in the composition and making of homemade bombs. These bombs that were being used in bank robberies occurred in the region.

first taken to Juiz de Fora, he was transferred soon after to Belo Horizonte, where he was detained for thirty days, returning after a loose Mutum, where he continued merchant, but in another line of business, the haberdashery.

The House Parties closed its doors and ceased its activities. Manoel Caxias since then always avoided comment on his arrest.

Another the people of Mutum considered subversive, arrested and prosecuted, was the Marinho Paulista, gas station owner Mouth Road, one well known Bairrinho to be located where began the main road that served as access to the city.

Contrary to how Manoel Caxias was arrested during the day and in front of several people, Marinho Paulista was caught at his home overnight without the closest neighbors were unaware of something.

One morning the woman known for Nezinha Cota, who Marinho Paulista had an affair, went to the station and informed the attendants what had happened.

When inquired how everything happened, she simply said he did not know details of who was in his own house, nearby the Marinho Paulista, he saw come the cops. Who had called for him and trapped when the door opened. The led, according to her, handcuffed, in a jeep. There were four policemen. She could not identify any of them, which made understand that it was not anyone from Mutum policing.

The disappearance of Marinho Paulista according to the rumors that have spread through the city, would be related to the supply of fuel for vehicles used by subversives during robberies in nearby towns.

The bank robberies were becoming routine and there was not enough to know when they were committed by subversive groups or burglars. Some sought to assign the events to others.

Marinho Paulista not returned to more Mutum. Your gas station has been abandoned since it was not there any relative that his place of business. The grass was taking over everything taking place account.

Even today there are some who continue the people of Mutum stating that Marinho Paulista not only supplied subversives cars, but also earned commission in the assaults made by simple marginal and assigned to those. How did not return from prison, they began to circulate rumors that Marinho Paulista had not supported a torture session that had been submitted and that he had died, it was not known when or where.

also happened to other prisons important no less, but I will take the liberty to report for now, only these two cases and, of course, Paulo de Sá.

   THE VISIT

OPERAÇÃO MUTUM – O SUFOCO

(Episódio 6)

Esta imagem possuí um atributo alt vazio; O nome do arquivo é image.png

Em 1966 Paulo de Sá foi preso em Ipatinga e, como consequência de sua detenção e encarceramento, houve um grande alvoroço em Mutum. Seu irmão, Professor Carlos viajou por uns dias sem que alguém soubesse informar o destino da sua viagem.

 A família, sua esposa e dois filhos, fingiam que nada estava acontecendo, mas, por mais que tentassem continuar suas rotinas diárias, deixavam transparecer, algumas vezes, sinais claros de muita preocupação e de insegurança.

Ao retornar, dias após ter viajado, soubemos por Carlos que o seu irmão Paulo, que havia sido feito prisioneiro na sede do sindicato, em Ipatinga, no Vale do Aço, estava desaparecido, sem constar dos registros oficiais de sindicalistas detidos para averiguação.

 Ele, Carlos, havia tentado junto a conhecidos influentes localizar o seu irmão, sem nenhum sucesso. Temia pela sua vida. “Nem quero imaginar – dizia – o que o coitado do Paulo deve estar passando”. Perguntado sobre os riscos que ele próprio corria, e se havia, também algum perigo para aqueles que havia aliciado em Mutum, dizia estar tranquilo porque não havia nada que os pudesse implicar em atos de subversão. Aconselhava, no entanto, que todos os que possuíssem em casa o famoso Estatuto do Partido Comunista do Brasil se livrassem dele. Não deviam esconder ou jogar fora. Deviam queimá-lo e jogar as cinzas fora. Outros livros considerados subversivos também deveriam ter o mesmo fim.  Finalmente, alertou para o fato de que quanto menos discutíssemos ou falássemos de política mais seguros estaríamos.

A rotina dos mutuenses sofreu algumas alterações. Já não se viam grupos de moradores mais velhos formados nas calçadas, até altas horas da noite, mesmo quando o calor se tornava quase insuportável no interior das residências.

Também na Praça Central os bancos, onde os novos comunistas se sentavam para discutir o futuro do Brasil, se apresentavam quase sempre vazios, assim como também se mostrava vazio o salão de sinucas durante a semana.

 Apenas nos finais de semana, nas noites de sábado e de domingo, o movimento aumentava nas calçadas, na Praça Central e nas mesas de sinucas. Também o Clube Social de Mutum e o Tringolingo passaram a ser frequentados apenas nos finais de semana.

Podia-se perceber no ar um quê de medo, de suspeição e de desconfiança. Quando alguém não era visto por mais de dois dias, corria logo o boato de que a pessoa havia sido presa ou que estava desaparecida ou que tinha fugido da cidade.

 Na realidade, poucas foram as prisões que aconteceram em Mutum em razão da revolução, naqueles primeiros tempos. Mas aconteceram. Como foi o caso, por exemplo, do Manoel Caxias, dono da Casa das Festas, especializada em vender fogos de artifícios e similares. Sua prisão aconteceu durante o dia, com muita gente assistindo, todos muito assustados, sem poder fazer nada, sem poder ajudar.

Manoel Caxias era gaúcho, de Caxias do Sul, motivo do apelido pelo qual era conhecido.

 Até aquele dia, quando foi levado preso pela polícia militar, ninguém sequer poderia imaginar que fosse capaz de praticar algum crime, alguma falcatrua, fazer mal a alguém. Manoel Caxias sempre se apresentara como uma pessoa honesta, íntegra e fraterna, totalmente confiável.

A explicação dada posteriormente, por uma das autoridades policiais que havia participado de sua prisão, o Cabo Eleutério, era a de que Manoel Caxias havia sido denunciado como fornecedor de material bélico para inimigos do Governo. Melhor explicando, o comerciante de fogos de artifícios era acusado de fornecer aos subversivos material explosivo, utilizado na composição e feitura de bombas caseiras. Bombas essas que estariam sendo utilizadas nos assaltos a bancos ocorridos na região.

Levado primeiramente para Juiz de Fora, foi transferido logo depois  para Belo Horizonte, onde ficou detido por trinta dias, retornando depois de solto a Mutum, onde continuou comerciante, mas em outro ramo de negócios, o de armarinhos.

 A Casa das Festas fechou as portas e encerrou suas atividades. Manoel Caxias, desde então, evitava sempre comentar sobre sua prisão.

Outro mutuense considerado subversivo, preso e processado, foi o Marinho Paulista, dono do Posto de Gasolina da Boca da Estrada, um bairrinho assim conhecido por estar situado onde começava a estrada principal que servia de acesso à cidade.

Contrariamente à forma pela qual Manoel Caxias foi preso, durante o dia e na frente de várias pessoas, Marinho Paulista foi apanhado em sua casa, durante a noite, sem que os vizinhos mais próximos se apercebessem de alguma coisa.

 Numa manhã a mulher conhecida por Nezinha do Cota, com quem Marinho Paulista tinha um caso amoroso, foi até o posto e comunicou aos frentistas o que havia acontecido.

Quando indagaram como tudo acontecera, ela simplesmente disse que não sabia de detalhes, que estava na sua própria casa, vizinha a de Marinho Paulista, quando viu chegarem os policiais. Que haviam chamado por ele e o prendido quando abrira a porta. O levaram, segundo ela, algemado, em um jipe. Eram quatro policiais. Ela não conseguiu identificar nenhum deles, o que deixava entender que não era ninguém do policiamento de Mutum.

O sumiço de Marinho Paulista segundo os boatos que se espalharam pela cidade, estaria relacionado com o fornecimento de combustível para abastecer veículos usados por subversivos durante assaltos em cidades próximas.

 Os assaltos a bancos estavam se tornando rotineiros e não dava mais para saber quando eram praticados por grupos subversivos ou por assaltantes comuns. Uns procuravam atribuir os acontecimentos aos outros.

 Marinho Paulista não retornou mais a Mutum. Seu posto de combustível foi abandonado já que não tinha lá nenhum parente que o substituísse nos negócios. O mato foi se apoderando de tudo, tomando conta do local.

Até hoje há alguns mutuenses que continuam afirmando que Marinho Paulista não só abastecia carros de subversivos, mas ganhava também comissão nos assaltos feitos por simples marginais e atribuídos àqueles. Como não retornou mais da prisão, começaram a circular boatos de que Marinho Paulista não tinha suportado a uma sessão de tortura a que tinha sido submetido e que tinha morrido, não se sabia quando nem onde.

Aconteceram também outras prisões não menos importanttes, mas vou tomar a liberdade de relatar, por enquanto, apenas esses dois casos e, naturalmente, o de Paulo de Sá.

O SUFOCO

Em 1966 Paulo de Sá foi preso em Ipatinga e, como consequência de sua detenção e encarceramento, houve um grande alvoroço em Mutum. Seu irmão, Professor Carlos viajou por uns dias sem que alguém soubesse informar o destino da sua viagem.

 A família, sua esposa e dois filhos, fingiam que nada estava acontecendo, mas, por mais que tentassem continuar suas rotinas diárias, deixavam transparecer, algumas vezes, sinais claros de muita preocupação e de insegurança.

Ao retornar, dias após ter viajado, soubemos por Carlos que o seu irmão Paulo, que havia sido feito prisioneiro na sede do sindicato, em Ipatinga, no Vale do Aço, estava desaparecido, sem constar dos registros oficiais de sindicalistas detidos para averiguação.

 Ele, Carlos, havia tentado junto a conhecidos influentes localizar o seu irmão, sem nenhum sucesso. Temia pela sua vida. “Nem quero imaginar – dizia – o que o coitado do Paulo deve estar passando”. Perguntado sobre os riscos que ele próprio corria, e se havia, também algum perigo para aqueles que havia aliciado em Mutum, dizia estar tranquilo porque não havia nada que os pudesse implicar em atos de subversão. Aconselhava, no entanto, que todos os que possuíssem em casa o famoso Estatuto do Partido Comunista do Brasil se livrassem dele. Não deviam esconder ou jogar fora. Deviam queimá-lo e jogar as cinzas fora. Outros livros considerados subversivos também deveriam ter o mesmo fim.  Finalmente, alertou para o fato de que quanto menos discutíssemos ou falássemos de política mais seguros estaríamos.

A rotina dos mutuenses sofreu algumas alterações. Já não se viam grupos de moradores mais velhos formados nas calçadas, até altas horas da noite, mesmo quando o calor se tornava quase insuportável no interior das residências.

Também na Praça Central os bancos, onde os novos comunistas se sentavam para discutir o futuro do Brasil, se apresentavam quase sempre vazios, assim como também se mostrava vazio o salão de sinucas durante a semana.

 Apenas nos finais de semana, nas noites de sábado e de domingo, o movimento aumentava nas calçadas, na Praça Central e nas mesas de sinucas. Também o Clube Social de Mutum e o Tringolingo passaram a ser frequentados apenas nos finais de semana.

Podia-se perceber no ar um quê de medo, de suspeição e de desconfiança. Quando alguém não era visto por mais de dois dias, corria logo o boato de que a pessoa havia sido presa ou que estava desaparecida ou que tinha fugido da cidade.

 Na realidade, poucas foram as prisões que aconteceram em Mutum em razão da revolução, naqueles primeiros tempos. Mas aconteceram. Como foi o caso, por exemplo, do Manoel Caxias, dono da Casa das Festas, especializada em vender fogos de artifícios e similares. Sua prisão aconteceu durante o dia, com muita gente assistindo, todos muito assustados, sem poder fazer nada, sem poder ajudar.

Manoel Caxias era gaúcho, de Caxias do Sul, motivo do apelido pelo qual era conhecido.

 Até aquele dia, quando foi levado preso pela polícia militar, ninguém sequer poderia imaginar que fosse capaz de praticar algum crime, alguma falcatrua, fazer mal a alguém. Manoel Caxias sempre se apresentara como uma pessoa honesta, íntegra e fraterna, totalmente confiável.

A explicação dada posteriormente, por uma das autoridades policiais que havia participado de sua prisão, o Cabo Eleutério, era a de que Manoel Caxias havia sido denunciado como fornecedor de material bélico para inimigos do Governo. Melhor explicando, o comerciante de fogos de artifícios era acusado de fornecer aos subversivos material explosivo, utilizado na composição e feitura de bombas caseiras. Bombas essas que estariam sendo utilizadas nos assaltos a bancos ocorridos na região.

Levado primeiramente para Juiz de Fora, foi transferido logo depois  para Belo Horizonte, onde ficou detido por trinta dias, retornando depois de solto a Mutum, onde continuou comerciante, mas em outro ramo de negócios, o de armarinhos.

 A Casa das Festas fechou as portas e encerrou suas atividades. Manoel Caxias, desde então, evitava sempre comentar sobre sua prisão.

Outro mutuense considerado subversivo, preso e processado, foi o Marinho Paulista, dono do Posto de Gasolina da Boca da Estrada, um bairrinho assim conhecido por estar situado onde começava a estrada principal que servia de acesso à cidade.

Contrariamente à forma pela qual Manoel Caxias foi preso, durante o dia e na frente de várias pessoas, Marinho Paulista foi apanhado em sua casa, durante a noite, sem que os vizinhos mais próximos se apercebessem de alguma coisa.

 Numa manhã a mulher conhecida por Nezinha do Cota, com quem Marinho Paulista tinha um caso amoroso, foi até o posto e comunicou aos frentistas o que havia acontecido.

Quando indagaram como tudo acontecera, ela simplesmente disse que não sabia de detalhes, que estava na sua própria casa, vizinha a de Marinho Paulista, quando viu chegarem os policiais. Que haviam chamado por ele e o prendido quando abrira a porta. O levaram, segundo ela, algemado, em um jipe. Eram quatro policiais. Ela não conseguiu identificar nenhum deles, o que deixava entender que não era ninguém do policiamento de Mutum.

O sumiço de Marinho Paulista segundo os boatos que se espalharam pela cidade, estaria relacionado com o fornecimento de combustível para abastecer veículos usados por subversivos durante assaltos em cidades próximas.

 Os assaltos a bancos estavam se tornando rotineiros e não dava mais para saber quando eram praticados por grupos subversivos ou por assaltantes comuns. Uns procuravam atribuir os acontecimentos aos outros.

 Marinho Paulista não retornou mais a Mutum. Seu posto de combustível foi abandonado já que não tinha lá nenhum parente que o substituísse nos negócios. O mato foi se apoderando de tudo, tomando conta do local.

Até hoje há alguns mutuenses que continuam afirmando que Marinho Paulista não só abastecia carros de subversivos, mas ganhava também comissão nos assaltos feitos por simples marginais e atribuídos àqueles. Como não retornou mais da prisão, começaram a circular boatos de que Marinho Paulista não tinha suportado a uma sessão de tortura a que tinha sido submetido e que tinha morrido, não se sabia quando nem onde.

Aconteceram também outras prisões não menos importantes, mas vou tomar a liberdade de relatar, por enquanto, apenas esses dois casos e, naturalmente, o de Paulo de Sá.

(Continua na próxima semana)

OPERATION MUTUM – THE OTHER

Esta imagem possuí um atributo alt vazio; O nome do arquivo é image.png

(Episode 5)

When, in 1966, the newspapers reported the arrest of a group of subversives in the Vale do Aço, Minas Gerais, there was a stir in Mutum.

It was discovered that one of the prisoners, considered the most dangerous of all, one of the heads of the resistance movement in that region of Minas Gerais, was none other than the brother of one of the most respected residents of Mutum, Carlos de Sá, a civil servant Federal, responsible for the office in charge of the registration of rural properties in the city and reference of honesty.

The news caught most of the mutuenses by surprise, for there were few who, enjoying the intimacy of Carlos de Sá, knew of the revolutionary political history of his brother.

He had told his few friends that his younger brother, Paulo de Sá, who occasionally visited him when he was on vacation, was a metallurgist and union leader in Ipatinga, where he worked for USIMINAS.

USIMINAS – Steel Mills of Minas Gerais, metal industry dedicated to the production of flat steel, designed to serve the domestic market and for export, mainly to Japan, was founded on April 25, 1956, during the government of Juscelino Kubitschek.

Counting on interest in its capital of the governments of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil and Japan, USIMINAS had the initial stake of the construction of its plant spiked by President JK, on ​​August 16, 1958, in Ipatinga, then only a village with no more than 300 inhabitants, situated on the banks of the Rio Piracicaba.

When, on October 26, 1962 President Joao Goulart, Jango, lit the first blast furnace and inaugurated the plant, with capacity to produce 500,000 tonnes of flat steel per year, Ipatinga already had an urban infrastructure conceived by company , able to house, definitively, the approximately ten thousand employees who worked in its creation and construction.

Paulo de Sa was one of those workers.

Equipped with a modern political vision for the time, communed ideals libertarians those who, after the revolution of 1964 dreamed of overthrowing the military government established by it.

In secret, as it was common to intellectuals of the time, Paulo de Sa signed membership in the Communist Party of Brazil – PCdoB, which subtly acting clandestinely, began to mount a resistance structure, including armed, the revolutionary government.

This reassembly party takes place after 1964 based on the structure created from February 18, 1962, when there was the Extraordinary Conference of Brazil’s Communist Party, adopting the B PC acronym, to differentiate it from Brazilian Communist party, accused of being opportunistic and right.

To exhibit, advertise and expand their B PC ideas created the party newspaper “The Working Class.”

Paulo de Sa becomes one of his most frequent collaborators when he assumes, in 1963, the leadership of their union in the Steel Valley.

Carlos was the student condition Sa, still in junior high school, I was introduced by him to his brother. Then I heard the first allusions to communism in Brazil and in the world, made by a communist.

Before there were only studied the subject in textbooks, which sought to highlight only a few moments of communist action, emphasizing the fact that the Party has been banned in Brazil since 1947, when, by decision of the Supreme Court on 7 May, Brazilian Communist party – PCB is placed as outlaw and outcast, being from then on the fringes of the law and in hiding. Consequently, on January 7, 1948 were revoked the mandates of all its representatives.

It was then President of Brazil General Eurico Gaspar Dutra, who succeeded in the government by President Getulio Vargas, who was ousted in October 29, 1945.

The Vargas government had been initiated with the Revolution of 1930, which was then brought to power by a military junta as president of an interim government after the overthrow of President Washington Luis.

By assuming, Getulio annuls the Constitution in force, created in 1891 and promises a new constitution. In 1932, for failure to fulfill the promise of government that faced what became known as the Constitutionalist Revolution. A revolutionary movement led by St. Paul that he intended to testify Getulio for noncompliance with the promises made to take the revolutionary government that had ousted President Washington Luiz and prevented the possession of Julio Prestes.

The São Paulo side were mobilized about thirty-five thousand rioters. The State of São Paulo was besieged for about one hundred thousand soldiers members of federal troops and the revolt was dominated. In 1934 he began the so-called constitutional government when he was elected in indirect choice by Congress.

In November 1937, through a coup d’etat, he became dictator, ruling that situation to be deposed and succeeded by General Dutra, who was until then his Minister of War in 1945.

With the deposition of Getúlio Vargas on October 29, 1945, he took office in his place Jose Linhares, President of the Supreme Court, until elections were held which elected in December of that same year, with majority of votes, General Eurico Gaspar Dutra, who took office in January 1946.

Backed by Getulio Vargas, who replaced the President Eurico Gaspar Dutra, who belonged to the staff of the Social Democratic Party – PSD, had as Vice President Nereu Ramos and as also military adversary Brigadeiro Eduardo Gomes, representative of the opposition, belonging to the Union National Democratic – UDN.

During the Government Dutra happened a Constituent Assembly, responsible for the promulgation of the 1946 Constitution, which strengthened the division of three powers – executive, legislative and judiciary – and reestablished direct elections for positions of executive and legislative powers, establishing the five-year term for positions in the executive branch.

The 1946 Constitution was in force until happen the Revolution of 1964. It was during the Dutra government that the PC do B was declared illegal.

The history of the PC do B, told by the Communists in the early 60s, it went far beyond that reported in schoolbooks. Was linked, according heard Paul de Sa in one of his visits to Mutum, the advance of communism in the world in defense of the weak, the oppressed and the equality of human rights.

His greatest merit, he said, was to combat savage capitalism and slavery represented by the expansionist power of the United States of America. Your quest for freedom of the masses involved all a revolutionary Latin American movement, which had the greatest examples of the ruling Castro Revolution of 1959 brought to completion in Cuba, Fidel Castro, and the Chinese revolutionary process led by Mao Zedong, with its actions of rural and urban guerrillas in their victorious march.

According claimed Paulo de Sa, the Brazilian Communists were organized, after the revolution of 64, for the resumption of power by civilians, if need be, even by arms, for the installation of a revolutionary government and. so that this fact occurred, already had popular support.

Brazil would be communist and would lead throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, alongside Cuba. The island Caribbean was the destination of Brazilian youth, especially students, that there were going in search of military training with the Cuban guerrillas in an attempt to form groups in Brazil that adopting guerrilla tactics employed in the fields and in the cities learned in Cuba, came to strengthen the civil resistance organized in parallel military force to the legal Armed Forces. Calls subversive forces.

The Union chaired by Paulo de Sa, as well as other unions, he said, encouraged and even financed when it was necessary, the way these groups in Cuba.

Paul himself, as we were told, had already made two visits to Havana, always clandestinely. It could not, however, he said, inform the steps and the path taken to get out of the country to your destination and back safely. Had scheduled three more trips considered to be necessary, he said, finishing the training started in the first, made a few months after the fall of Jango.

In one of his visits to his brother in Mutum, Paulo de Sá began an attempt to round up, with his leftist ideas, admirers among us young students from the city and the region. Therefore, he had the help of some people of influence in the city, in addition to his brother, who saw it as a kind of national resistance hero, destined to save Brazil from the clutches of the American Eagle.

These their close friends left provided a tour of some students from the Rural Federal University, located in Campo Grande, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, to our city in 1963. The Mutum Project.

They arrived in two buses for a total of sixty students from various courses. The intention of the visit, which lasted fifteen days was to provide technical and scientific assistance to the population, taking modern knowledge in the areas of education, health, economics and public policy, among others, to  the people of Mutum who were interested in acquiring them.

We were met with and hosted parties not in hotels and guesthouses, but in private homes as if they were their families. The intention unreported and maintained in complete disguise was to propagate the ideas of the Left University Student, follower of the Communist Party of Brazil.

Professor Carlos de Sa and his brother, Paulo de Sa, Union President in the Steel Valley, were present during the entire time that the group of students remained in Mutum, giving them advice, guiding them and providing authorities and people thought were important and able to join the communist cause in the region.

A partition statutes, as it was called the PC do B, were printed in the main graphical city and gracefully distributed to all new members or candidates for membership.

At night, in the living rooms of homes was discussed article by article, the Statute. The same happened to the banks of the Central Square where, without the book to be handled, his ideas were discussed and propagated.

Fortnight Communist indoctrination was done in a systematic way through modern means of pedagogy and didactics. Carlos de Sa and his brother Paul, at the end of the fortnight, when students returned to their University, in Rio de Janeiro, were satisfied with the result of work carried out in the city.

A large number of new followers was affiliated to PC B, although this membership was clandestinely. New propagators of the Communist ideology. Endorsements to existing regional unions and even the formation of a local union, the Union of Rural Workers, which did not exist before in Mutum. Communism, according to the two brothers, began, to gain strength and face in the region.

(To be continued next week)

Operation Mutum – THE SET

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( Episode 3)

Brazil had undergone a major political transformation in 1964, when a political revolution took place that put the Federal Government and the country under a military regime, led by a President chosen by the three arms, Army, Navy and Air Force, without the people being able to participate Choice. A new constitution replaced that which existed until then. The individual rights and guarantees were suspended under the plea of ​​defense of the regime and a dictatorship implanted, undated for the future return to democratic principles.

The Brazilian people watched everything without great resistance. A little because of the extinction of the political parties existing before 1964, but mainly because of the imposition by the revolutionaries of a regime of force, supported by the violent actions of repression against those who were against the new regime. The Executive Power took precedence over the other constitutional powers – Legislative and Judiciary.

The direct elections for the political choice of the rulers in the three levels – Federal, State and Municipal – were suspended. A climate of fear and an exception regime where totalitarianism prevailed was established throughout the country.

After 1964, the country was divided between those who supported the actions of the rulers responsible for the revolution and those who opposed it considered it purely and simply a military coup and yearned for a return to the legal situation, as they said in secret.

The military was imposing its will and strength and the counterrevolutionaries were organizing themselves into clandestine groups, trying to find ways and means to resist. They became known as subversives and were wanted and arrested by the military.

We can also add to this group those who aspired to the overthrow of the military regime, not for the return of the previous rule of law, but for the implementation of another leftist form of government inspired by communist ideals, taking as an example the adopted government In Cuba, by Fidel Castro and his followers.

The passing of the years and the recent history of Brazil show us some of these characters still in evidence. But contrary to what they thought, what they preached and defended in those days of subversion and resistance to the military regime, they present today as if they had been in the past defenders of the return of the country to a regime of democracy. This, however, is not the truth. They objectively wanted these groups, formed by Marxists originally from the Communist Party of Brazil – PC do B, by force, resist the military government they considered as usurper, who had deposed the President of the Republic, overthrow it and establish a popular dictatorship Of left, communist. They had as model and examples the revolutionary movements and governments led by Fidel Castro, dictator in Cuba and Mao-Tsé-Tung, dictator in the People’s Republic of China.

In the same way that the government had sympathizers, in all the localities of the Country there were also subversives.

In the great centers and in the small villages, the two groups were in opposition. And they faced each other. The advantage always was of the governors because they could, on the basis of simple distrusts, denounce those who considered or suspected to be subversive. These, when denounced, were made political prisoners, sometimes even tortured or killed. Consequently they always tried to act in secret, in the underground.

They lived a double life, seeking to participate in actions against the government, but also seeking, on the other hand, to always keep their normal activities as abstruse, not to raise suspicions that could provide reasons for their arrests. Some groups took up arms, turning streets, squares, and avenues into battlefields. Deaths occurred on both sides. Bank robberies have become commonplace, with the booty serving, according to the robbers, to finance the acquisition of more weapons to strengthen and continue their struggle. The government considered and divulged that these actions were nothing more than robberies made by gangs of ordinary people who took advantage of the moment to impersonate political groups in resistance to the government.

When persecuted in the big cities, the counterrevolutionaries raided the interior, where they practiced guerrilla training. The so-called urban guerrilla, a form of attacking suddenly and disappearing even faster. This was Brazil from end to end after 1964.

The Military Government is sustained until when, on January 15, 1985, Tancredo de Almeida Neves is elected President of the Republic, through an indirect election made through an Electoral College composed of members of the National Congress (Senators and Deputies). The Senator for Minas Gerais, representing the PMDB, who was opposed to the Government, obtained 480 votes and his opponent Paulo Maluf, Federal Deputy for São Paulo representative of the PDS, who supported the Government, 180 votes. There were also 19 abstentions and 9 absences.

The victory of Tancredo Neves, in the Electoral College, was the result of a process of popular demand for the return to the democratic regime. The Brazilian people could not stand the military dictatorship installed since 1964.

(Continues next week))

Operation Mutum – THE ORIGIN

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(Second Episode)

Mutum, contrary to what the name may suggest, is not one of those modern and overpopulated metropolis like São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte or Salvador, with which it only has similarity because it is also located in Brazil. On the contrary, it is a small city in the state of Minas Gerais, distant by highway some three hundred and a few kilometers from Belo Horizonte, the state capital, where the  people of Mutum come, the name given to those born in Mutum, when they want, as they say, to take A bath of civilization.

They just do not like, when they are in the capital, to be called inland people. And in this they are right, since Mutum, in fact, in a straight line, is no more than seventy or at most, eighty kilometers from the sea that bathes the back of the Holy Spirit. Mutum, therefore, is a more coastal city than Belo Horizonte. This, yes, a city of the interior. It was there, in Mutum, that I was raised.

My birth occurred days before my parents moved from the small village called Assaraí, belonging to the time to the neighboring municipality of Ipanema, where they lived, to another city, Aimorés, also near Mutum, where, they thought, life would be more Promising The district of Assaraí today belongs to the municipality of Pocrane. The municipality of Pocrane was separated from Ipanema municipality in 1948, to read as districts, and Assaraí, Figueira da Barra, Cachoeirão village and Taquaral Village.

To reach the town of Aimorés, where they were moving, they would have to pass through Mutum, where my grandparents lived, Olívio and Cotinha, my mother’s parents.

As I was told much later, when I understood myself, I, at the time of the change of my family, became ill, and at two months of age I was left at my grandparents’ house to take care of me until I could , After being cured, go to the company of my parents and my brothers. But none of this happened because I simply, after being cured, about six months old, refused to leave the company of my grandparents, demonstrating this through very convincing sobbing and tantrums.

My grandparents, in turn, reinforcing my desire to stay, did not want to give me back, promising to take care of me as if they were my parents. So I ended up staying and living with them for over twenty-two years.

Later, my parents finally moved to Mutum, where my mother became a state primary school teacher and my father City Hall clerk.

Even though I lived in the same city where my parents lived, I continued to live with my grandparents. I visited my parents at home every day. But I lived with my grandparents. I had a special way of addressing them. To my grandparents I called Father and Mother. My father was called Paiplício (he was called Simplício) and my mother called Mother (my mother was Geracy).

In Mutum I lived my childhood and my adolescence. I began my studies, and in the only college in the city in my time, I conclude the first and second degrees.

As a bookworm and eager to write, I soon became embroiled in the cream of local culture, made up of a privileged elite who had access to up-to-date information from all over the world.

I was always well informed and stocked with books, newspapers, and magazines to quench my hunger for reading. As a consequence, I was always involved in the creation of literary guilds and academic journals, which gave rise to my desire to one day be a journalist. So, before becoming what I am today, teacher, I ended up being a journalist, after moving to the Capital in 1969, where I remain residing until this year of 2016.

It was in Belo Horizonte, in 1975, that the events I am about to report reached me.

(Continues next week)

OPERATION MUTUM – Introduction

  INTRODUCTION

(First episode)

Although it was a very special Wednesday, August 31, 2016 looked nothing different from an ordinary day on Wednesday. Trade had opened its doors and it worked normally, the traffic was complicated as every Wednesday, and the streets were full of people coming and going, shaken.

In Belo Horizonte, where I was, from the window of the apartment on the tenth floor of the building where I live, I stood for a long time watching the people coming and going downstairs, flattened, as seen from above. My field of vision reached the corners of Caetés with Amazonas and Bahia, a part of Avenue of the Andradas and a little piece of Square 7, a little more distant. He could also hear the sound of rockets exploding all over the city center and a few neighborhoods nearby. In addition to the honking caused by the cars that circulated. And, of course, the cries of “Out Dilma” and “It’s coup.” Sometimes bad words could also be heard.

In the room I was in, the television alternated with comments from experts, analysts, politicians and ordinary people about the end of President Dilma Rousseff’s impeachment process. The President’s trial session, which began on Thursday, 25, had been adjourned on Wednesday at 1:35 pm, when sixty-one senators concluded that they had been guilty of the charges against him and, consequently, of the cassation Of his mandate. Twenty senators voted against it. The PT government was therefore closed, which began with the election of Lula, who was sworn in on January 1, 2003, succeeding Fernando Henrique Cardoso of the PSDB.

In place of President Dilma took on that same day her Vice President Michel Temer, of the PMDB. Sitting in front of the TV I was thinking about how, once again, I was witnessing another radical change in the History of Brazil.

Without having anything more important to do than to stay there, listening to the TV news, I was curious to know more about the presidents of Brazil, especially as their governments ended. I turned on the computer and set out to search the Internet, the government of each one, from the first to the last, the one of Dilma, that had just finished finishing.

The first was Marechal Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca, born in Alagoas da Lagoa do Sul, now Marechal Deodoro (AL), who proclaimed the Republic and ruled from November 15, 1889 to November 23, 1891, when he resigned his term. He was succeeded by Floriano Vieira Peixoto, born in Maceió (AL) who was in power from 23/111891 to 11/15/1894. The other presidents were Prudente José de Morais Barros, born in Itu (SP), from 11/15/1894 to 11/15/1898. Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales, born in Campinas (SP), from 11/15/1898 to 11/15/1902. Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, born in Guaratinguetá (SP), from 11/15/1902 to 11/15/1906. Afonso Augusto Moreira Pena, born in Santa Bárbara (MG), from November 15, 1906 to July 14, 1909, when he died in the exercise of his mandate. Nilo Procópio Peçanha, born in Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ), from 07/07/1909 to 15/11/1910. Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca, born in São Gabriel (RS), from 11/15/1910 to 11/15/1914. Venceslau Brás Pereira Gomes, born in Itajubá (MG), from 11/15/1914 to 11/15/1918. . Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, elected to start the mandate on November 15, 1818, died on 01/16/1919 without assuming the position. Delfim Moreira da Costa Ribeiro, born in Cristina (MG), from 11/15/1918 to 07/28/1919. Epitacio Lindolfo da Silva Pessoa, born in Umbuzeiro (PB), from July 28, 1919 to November 15, Artur da Silva Bernardes, born in Viçosa (MG), from 11/15/1922 to 11/15/1926. Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa, born in Macaé (RJ), from November 15, 1926 to October 24, 1930, when he was deposed. Júlio Prestes de Albuquerque, born in Itapetininga (SP), elected to begin his term of office on November 15, 1930, failed to take office and was the only president elected by direct vote in Brazil to be barred from taking office. Board of Governors Provisional 1930, formed by General Augusto Tasso Fragoso, born in São Luís (MA), Admiral José Isaías de Noronha, born in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) John of God Mena Barreto , born in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) from 10/24/1930 to 11/03/1930. Getúlio Dornelles Vargas, born in São Borja (RS), from November 3, 1930 to October 29, 1945, having been provisional president from 1930 to 1934, constitutional president from 1934 to 1937 and president dictator from 1937 to 29 / 1945, when he was ousted from office. José Linhares, born in Guaramiranga (EC) of 10.29.1945 to 31.01.1946. Eurico Gaspar Dutra, born in Cuiabá (MT) in 31/01/1946 to 31/01/1951. Getúlio Dorneles Vargas 01/31/1951 to 08/24/1954. John Fernandes Campos Café Filho, born in Natal (RN), from 24.08.1954 to 08.11.1955, when he was deposed. Carlos Coimbra da Luz, born in Three Hearts (MG) of 11.08.1955 to 11.11.1955. He assumed the Presidency of the Republic for being the President of the Chamber of Deputies, due to the removal of President Café Filho (Vice President of Getúlio Vargas, had assumed the government after his suicide), and was impeached by the National Congress. In its place he became the 1st Vice President of the Senate , Nereu de Oliveira Ramos , born in São José dos Pinhais (SC) 11/11/1955 to 31/01/1956. Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, born in Diamantina (MG) from 31/01/1956 to 31/01/1961. Janio da Silva Quadros, born in Campo Grande (MT) from 01/31/1961 to 25/08/1961. Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli, born in Caconde (SP) from 25/08/1961 to 07/09/1961, after the resignation of the holder Quadros , and during the absence of the vice president João Goulart , who was on an official visit to the People ‘s Republic China . João Belchior Marques Goulart, born in São Borja (RS) from 07.07.1961 to 01.04.1964, when f hi deposed by the coup 1964 military . Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli 02/04/1964 to 15/04/1964. Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco, born in Fortaleza, from 15/04/1964 to 15/03/1967. Marshal Arthur C osta e Silva, born in Taquari (RS) from 03.15.1967 to 08.31.1969, when he resigned from the government leadership due to illness. Board of Governors Provisional 1969 (formed by General Aurélio de Lira Tavares, the Army Minister, born in João Pessoa (PB)
Admiral Augusto Hamann Rademaker Grünewald, Minister of Marine, born in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and
Márcio de Souza Mello, Minister of Aeronautics, born in Florianópolis (SC)) from 08/31/1969 to 10/30/1969. General Emilio Medici Garrastazu, born in Bagé (RS) from 30/10/1969 to 15/03/1974. General Ernesto Beckmann Geisel, born in Bento Gonçalves (RS), from 03/15/1974 to 03/15/1979. General João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo, born in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), of the 03/15/1979 15/03/1985. Tancredo de Almeida Neves, born in São João Del-Rei (MG). Elected, he did not come to assume the mandate. José Sarney de Araújo Costa (José Ribamar Ferreira de Araújo Costa), born in Pinheiro (MA), from 03/15/1985 to 03/15/1990. Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello, born in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), from 15/03/1990 to 29/12/1992, when he had his impeachment approved by the Senate. Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco, was born aboard a ship on the Salvador / Rio de Janeiro route and had his Birth Record made in Salvador (BA), from 12/29/1992 to 01/01/1995. Fernando Henrique Cardoso, born in Rio de Janeiro, 01/01/1995 to 01/01/2003 – Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Luiz Inácio da Silva), born in Caetés (PE), from 01/01/2003 to 01/01/2011 – Dilma Vana Rousseff, born in Belo Horizonte (MG), 01/01/2011 – 31/08/2016 – and now Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia, born in Tietê (SP).

I’m getting old, I thought. From the day I was born to this day, twenty-five presidents have already taken place.

When I conclude my thoughts, I have been awakened to a strange coincidence. The first of the presidents of my time, Getúlio Vargas, was prevented from finishing his term in the period known as the New State Dictatorship, just the day I was born, October 29, 1945, overthrown by the Army High Command. The last president-elect was Dilma, also prevented from finishing her second term, and her impeachment process was voted and approved by the Federal Senate.

I spent the rest of the afternoon and a good part of the evening attending to the repercussions of President Dilma’s annulment, the possession of Vice-President Temer, now President and demonstrations for and against impeachment. When I turned the TV off and decided it was time to go to sleep, it was past two in the morning.

I did not sleep peacefully. It cost me a lot to fall asleep, I woke up several times agitated and I had not very pleasant dreams. The day had been very different from my routine.

At six in the morning, I woke up scared and, in a jump, I sat on the bed. The words I had heard in my ears still echoed in my sleep and made me wake up. Immediately I identified them as being said by Manfred Kurt who had shouted in his hoarse voice and his Germanic accent “And the book, damn it. Are not you going to write it again, you shit? “

Wide awake, I got up and headed for the bathroom as I said quietly, “Calm down, German. I’ll write, yes. I’m still starting today. You do not have to come to haunt me. You can continue to rest in peace. “

(CONTINUES IN THE NEXT WEEK)

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