OPERATION MUTUM – THE OTHER
When, in 1966, the newspapers reported the arrest of a group of subversives in the Vale do Aço, Minas Gerais, there was a stir in Mutum.
It was discovered that one of the prisoners, considered the most dangerous of all, one of the heads of the resistance movement in that region of Minas Gerais, was none other than the brother of one of the most respected residents of Mutum, Carlos de Sá, a civil servant Federal, responsible for the office in charge of the registration of rural properties in the city and reference of honesty.
The news caught most of the mutuenses by surprise, for there were few who, enjoying the intimacy of Carlos de Sá, knew of the revolutionary political history of his brother.
He had told his few friends that his younger brother, Paulo de Sá, who occasionally visited him when he was on vacation, was a metallurgist and union leader in Ipatinga, where he worked for USIMINAS.
USIMINAS – Steel Mills of Minas Gerais, metal industry dedicated to the production of flat steel, designed to serve the domestic market and for export, mainly to Japan, was founded on April 25, 1956, during the government of Juscelino Kubitschek.
Counting on interest in its capital of the governments of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil and Japan, USIMINAS had the initial stake of the construction of its plant spiked by President JK, on August 16, 1958, in Ipatinga, then only a village with no more than 300 inhabitants, situated on the banks of the Rio Piracicaba.
When, on October 26, 1962 President Joao Goulart, Jango, lit the first blast furnace and inaugurated the plant, with capacity to produce 500,000 tonnes of flat steel per year, Ipatinga already had an urban infrastructure conceived by company , able to house, definitively, the approximately ten thousand employees who worked in its creation and construction.
Paulo de Sa was one of those workers.
Equipped with a modern political vision for the time, communed ideals libertarians those who, after the revolution of 1964 dreamed of overthrowing the military government established by it.
In secret, as it was common to intellectuals of the time, Paulo de Sa signed membership in the Communist Party of Brazil – PCdoB, which subtly acting clandestinely, began to mount a resistance structure, including armed, the revolutionary government.
This reassembly party takes place after 1964 based on the structure created from February 18, 1962, when there was the Extraordinary Conference of Brazil’s Communist Party, adopting the B PC acronym, to differentiate it from Brazilian Communist party, accused of being opportunistic and right.
To exhibit, advertise and expand their B PC ideas created the party newspaper “The Working Class.”
Paulo de Sa becomes one of his most frequent collaborators when he assumes, in 1963, the leadership of their union in the Steel Valley.
Carlos was the student condition Sa, still in junior high school, I was introduced by him to his brother. Then I heard the first allusions to communism in Brazil and in the world, made by a communist.
Before there were only studied the subject in textbooks, which sought to highlight only a few moments of communist action, emphasizing the fact that the Party has been banned in Brazil since 1947, when, by decision of the Supreme Court on 7 May, Brazilian Communist party – PCB is placed as outlaw and outcast, being from then on the fringes of the law and in hiding. Consequently, on January 7, 1948 were revoked the mandates of all its representatives.
It was then President of Brazil General Eurico Gaspar Dutra, who succeeded in the government by President Getulio Vargas, who was ousted in October 29, 1945.
The Vargas government had been initiated with the Revolution of 1930, which was then brought to power by a military junta as president of an interim government after the overthrow of President Washington Luis.
By assuming, Getulio annuls the Constitution in force, created in 1891 and promises a new constitution. In 1932, for failure to fulfill the promise of government that faced what became known as the Constitutionalist Revolution. A revolutionary movement led by St. Paul that he intended to testify Getulio for noncompliance with the promises made to take the revolutionary government that had ousted President Washington Luiz and prevented the possession of Julio Prestes.
The São Paulo side were mobilized about thirty-five thousand rioters. The State of São Paulo was besieged for about one hundred thousand soldiers members of federal troops and the revolt was dominated. In 1934 he began the so-called constitutional government when he was elected in indirect choice by Congress.
In November 1937, through a coup d’etat, he became dictator, ruling that situation to be deposed and succeeded by General Dutra, who was until then his Minister of War in 1945.
With the deposition of Getúlio Vargas on October 29, 1945, he took office in his place Jose Linhares, President of the Supreme Court, until elections were held which elected in December of that same year, with majority of votes, General Eurico Gaspar Dutra, who took office in January 1946.
Backed by Getulio Vargas, who replaced the President Eurico Gaspar Dutra, who belonged to the staff of the Social Democratic Party – PSD, had as Vice President Nereu Ramos and as also military adversary Brigadeiro Eduardo Gomes, representative of the opposition, belonging to the Union National Democratic – UDN.
During the Government Dutra happened a Constituent Assembly, responsible for the promulgation of the 1946 Constitution, which strengthened the division of three powers – executive, legislative and judiciary – and reestablished direct elections for positions of executive and legislative powers, establishing the five-year term for positions in the executive branch.
The 1946 Constitution was in force until happen the Revolution of 1964. It was during the Dutra government that the PC do B was declared illegal.
The history of the PC do B, told by the Communists in the early 60s, it went far beyond that reported in schoolbooks. Was linked, according heard Paul de Sa in one of his visits to Mutum, the advance of communism in the world in defense of the weak, the oppressed and the equality of human rights.
His greatest merit, he said, was to combat savage capitalism and slavery represented by the expansionist power of the United States of America. Your quest for freedom of the masses involved all a revolutionary Latin American movement, which had the greatest examples of the ruling Castro Revolution of 1959 brought to completion in Cuba, Fidel Castro, and the Chinese revolutionary process led by Mao Zedong, with its actions of rural and urban guerrillas in their victorious march.
According claimed Paulo de Sa, the Brazilian Communists were organized, after the revolution of 64, for the resumption of power by civilians, if need be, even by arms, for the installation of a revolutionary government and. so that this fact occurred, already had popular support.
Brazil would be communist and would lead throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, alongside Cuba. The island Caribbean was the destination of Brazilian youth, especially students, that there were going in search of military training with the Cuban guerrillas in an attempt to form groups in Brazil that adopting guerrilla tactics employed in the fields and in the cities learned in Cuba, came to strengthen the civil resistance organized in parallel military force to the legal Armed Forces. Calls subversive forces.
The Union chaired by Paulo de Sa, as well as other unions, he said, encouraged and even financed when it was necessary, the way these groups in Cuba.
Paul himself, as we were told, had already made two visits to Havana, always clandestinely. It could not, however, he said, inform the steps and the path taken to get out of the country to your destination and back safely. Had scheduled three more trips considered to be necessary, he said, finishing the training started in the first, made a few months after the fall of Jango.
In one of his visits to his brother in Mutum, Paulo de Sá began an attempt to round up, with his leftist ideas, admirers among us young students from the city and the region. Therefore, he had the help of some people of influence in the city, in addition to his brother, who saw it as a kind of national resistance hero, destined to save Brazil from the clutches of the American Eagle.
These their close friends left provided a tour of some students from the Rural Federal University, located in Campo Grande, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, to our city in 1963. The Mutum Project.
They arrived in two buses for a total of sixty students from various courses. The intention of the visit, which lasted fifteen days was to provide technical and scientific assistance to the population, taking modern knowledge in the areas of education, health, economics and public policy, among others, to the people of Mutum who were interested in acquiring them.
We were met with and hosted parties not in hotels and guesthouses, but in private homes as if they were their families. The intention unreported and maintained in complete disguise was to propagate the ideas of the Left University Student, follower of the Communist Party of Brazil.
Professor Carlos de Sa and his brother, Paulo de Sa, Union President in the Steel Valley, were present during the entire time that the group of students remained in Mutum, giving them advice, guiding them and providing authorities and people thought were important and able to join the communist cause in the region.
A partition statutes, as it was called the PC do B, were printed in the main graphical city and gracefully distributed to all new members or candidates for membership.
At night, in the living rooms of homes was discussed article by article, the Statute. The same happened to the banks of the Central Square where, without the book to be handled, his ideas were discussed and propagated.
Fortnight Communist indoctrination was done in a systematic way through modern means of pedagogy and didactics. Carlos de Sa and his brother Paul, at the end of the fortnight, when students returned to their University, in Rio de Janeiro, were satisfied with the result of work carried out in the city.
A large number of new followers was affiliated to PC B, although this membership was clandestinely. New propagators of the Communist ideology. Endorsements to existing regional unions and even the formation of a local union, the Union of Rural Workers, which did not exist before in Mutum. Communism, according to the two brothers, began, to gain strength and face in the region.
(To be continued next week)