( Episode 3)
Brazil had undergone a major political transformation in 1964, when a political revolution took place that put the Federal Government and the country under a military regime, led by a President chosen by the three arms, Army, Navy and Air Force, without the people being able to participate Choice. A new constitution replaced that which existed until then. The individual rights and guarantees were suspended under the plea of defense of the regime and a dictatorship implanted, undated for the future return to democratic principles.
The Brazilian people watched everything without great resistance. A little because of the extinction of the political parties existing before 1964, but mainly because of the imposition by the revolutionaries of a regime of force, supported by the violent actions of repression against those who were against the new regime. The Executive Power took precedence over the other constitutional powers – Legislative and Judiciary.
The direct elections for the political choice of the rulers in the three levels – Federal, State and Municipal – were suspended. A climate of fear and an exception regime where totalitarianism prevailed was established throughout the country.
After 1964, the country was divided between those who supported the actions of the rulers responsible for the revolution and those who opposed it considered it purely and simply a military coup and yearned for a return to the legal situation, as they said in secret.
The military was imposing its will and strength and the counterrevolutionaries were organizing themselves into clandestine groups, trying to find ways and means to resist. They became known as subversives and were wanted and arrested by the military.
We can also add to this group those who aspired to the overthrow of the military regime, not for the return of the previous rule of law, but for the implementation of another leftist form of government inspired by communist ideals, taking as an example the adopted government In Cuba, by Fidel Castro and his followers.
The passing of the years and the recent history of Brazil show us some of these characters still in evidence. But contrary to what they thought, what they preached and defended in those days of subversion and resistance to the military regime, they present today as if they had been in the past defenders of the return of the country to a regime of democracy. This, however, is not the truth. They objectively wanted these groups, formed by Marxists originally from the Communist Party of Brazil – PC do B, by force, resist the military government they considered as usurper, who had deposed the President of the Republic, overthrow it and establish a popular dictatorship Of left, communist. They had as model and examples the revolutionary movements and governments led by Fidel Castro, dictator in Cuba and Mao-Tsé-Tung, dictator in the People’s Republic of China.
In the same way that the government had sympathizers, in all the localities of the Country there were also subversives.
In the great centers and in the small villages, the two groups were in opposition. And they faced each other. The advantage always was of the governors because they could, on the basis of simple distrusts, denounce those who considered or suspected to be subversive. These, when denounced, were made political prisoners, sometimes even tortured or killed. Consequently they always tried to act in secret, in the underground.
They lived a double life, seeking to participate in actions against the government, but also seeking, on the other hand, to always keep their normal activities as abstruse, not to raise suspicions that could provide reasons for their arrests. Some groups took up arms, turning streets, squares, and avenues into battlefields. Deaths occurred on both sides. Bank robberies have become commonplace, with the booty serving, according to the robbers, to finance the acquisition of more weapons to strengthen and continue their struggle. The government considered and divulged that these actions were nothing more than robberies made by gangs of ordinary people who took advantage of the moment to impersonate political groups in resistance to the government.
When persecuted in the big cities, the counterrevolutionaries raided the interior, where they practiced guerrilla training. The so-called urban guerrilla, a form of attacking suddenly and disappearing even faster. This was Brazil from end to end after 1964.
The Military Government is sustained until when, on January 15, 1985, Tancredo de Almeida Neves is elected President of the Republic, through an indirect election made through an Electoral College composed of members of the National Congress (Senators and Deputies). The Senator for Minas Gerais, representing the PMDB, who was opposed to the Government, obtained 480 votes and his opponent Paulo Maluf, Federal Deputy for São Paulo representative of the PDS, who supported the Government, 180 votes. There were also 19 abstentions and 9 absences.
The victory of Tancredo Neves, in the Electoral College, was the result of a process of popular demand for the return to the democratic regime. The Brazilian people could not stand the military dictatorship installed since 1964.
(Continues next week))